Dreams according to Freud
A popular American philosopher Ralph Emerson (1803–1882) stated that an experienced person studies dreams not to foresee his future, an experienced person studies dreams in order to do soul-searching. This idea was developed the best by the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), whose book “The Interpretation of Dreams” was published in 1899.
According to Freud, dreams do not foretoken anything, and they have nothing to do with future at all. Dreams show us only the past events and the things we experienced. Dream analysis provides us an opportunity to sort out our secret aspirations and fears.
A human not infrequently has strong desires that go against his education and mental set. He is afraid to admit them. During the daytime, when the person is awake, these inaccessible desires are sent to the area of the unconscious and they are kept there protected by a “censorship”. The state of dreaming causes redistribution of psychic energy.
A sleeping person is deprived of the opportunity to act and fulfill his desires, he doesn’t need to expend energy in exterminating harmless hallucinations. The only harm they can do, it is a sleep interruption. That is why desires in dreams are not extinguished – they are translated into a special symbolic language that is needed to cheat a censorship, that doesn’t let anything forbidden into the consciousness. In such a way there is reached a compromise: in a dream passions are running high and there are played forbidden scenarios, while after awakening we forget them or remember in so mangled form that they seem to be absolutely senseless. People from different cultures believe that dreams are closely associated with fantasies and wishes. It is no wonder that psychoanalysis turned dream interpretation into interpretation of fantasies and wishes, and dream images – into symbols and objects of passionate harassment.
Dreams according to Hаll
“Dream images are visual representations of personal conceptions,”
– Calvin S. Hаll
A popular American psychologist who studied in the field of dream interpretation and analysis, Calvin Hаll (1909–1985), looked at the matter of formation of dreams as to a creative intellectual cognitive process that does not require from a dreamer any special skills or training. As opposed to Freud, Hall believed that these are thoughts that form the basis of dreams. But not all thoughts, of course, well, at least, not about politics or economy.
Hall had been studying the dreams of his students in the days when the USA dropped the atom bomb to Hiroshima. That event did not show in any of the dreams he analyzed. That dreams also did not feature any of such events as sporting competitions, presidential elections, clashes of interests of supercountries, etc.
That is why Hall reached the conclusion that in dreams people usually deal with their mental world, instead of intellectual, scientific, cultural or professional problems. In dreams there are expressed thoughts of a human about himself and his desires, about the people he communicates with, about tabooes and penalties for their violation, about life hardships and the ways of attaining the goals.